Kamis, 14 Juni 2012

PETA, PENGINDRAAN JAUH,DAN GIS

FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY (2nd Edition)
CHAPTER 2: Maps, Remote Sensing, and GIS

(a). Introduction to Maps



Introduction
A map can be simply defined as a graphic representation of the real world. This representation is always an abstraction of reality. Because of the infinite nature of our Universe it is impossible to capture all of the complexity found in the real world. For example, topographic maps abstract the three-dimensional real world at a reduced scale on a two-dimensional plane of paper.
Maps are used to display both cultural and physical features of the environment. Standard topographic maps show a variety of information including roads, land-use classification, elevation, rivers and other water bodies, political boundaries, and the identification of houses and other types of buildings. Some maps are created with very specific goals in mind. Figure 2a-1 displays a weather map showing the location of low and high pressure centers and fronts over most of North America. The intended purpose of this map is considerably more specialized than a topographic map.
Figure 2a-1: The following specialized weather map displays the surface location of pressure centers and fronts for Saturday, November 27, 1999 over a portion of North America.

The art of map construction is called cartography. People who work in this field of knowledge are called cartographers. The construction and use of maps has a long history. Some academics believe that the earliest maps date back to the fifth or sixth century BC. Even in these early maps, the main goal of this tool was to communicate information. Early maps were quite subjective in their presentation of spatial information. Maps became more objective with the dawn of Western science. The application of scientific method into cartography made maps more ordered and accurate. Today, the art of map making is quite a sophisticated science employing methods from cartography, engineering, computer science, mathematics, and psychology.
Cartographers classify maps into two broad categories: reference maps and thematic maps. Reference maps normally show natural and human-made objects from the geographical environment with an emphasis on location. Examples of general reference maps include maps found in atlases and topographic maps. Thematic maps are used to display the geographical distribution of one phenomenon or the spatial associations that occur between a number of phenomena.

Map Projection
The shape of the Earth's surface can be described as an ellipsoid. An ellipsoid is a three-dimensional shape that departs slightly from a purely spherical form. The Earth takes this form because rotation causes the region near the equator to bulge outward to space. The angular motion caused by the Earth spinning on its axis also forces the polar regions on the globe to be somewhat flattened.
Representing the true shape of the Earth's surface on a map creates some problems, especially when this depiction is illustrated on a two-dimensional surface. To overcome these problems, cartographers have developed a number of standardized transformation processes for the creation of two-dimensional maps. All of these transformation processes create some type of distortion artifact. The nature of this distortion is related to how the transformation process modifies specific geographic properties of the map. Some of the geographic properties affected by projection distortion include: distance; area; straight line direction between points on the Earth; and the bearing of cardinal points from locations on our planet.
The illustrations below show some of the common map projections used today. The first two-dimensional projection shows the Earth's surface as viewed from space (Figure 2a-2). This orthographic projection distorts distance, shape, and the size of areas. Another serious limitation of this projection is that only a portion of the Earth's surface can be viewed at any one time.
The second illustration displays a Mercator projection of the Earth (Figure 2a-3). On a Mercator projection, the north-south scale increases from the equator at the same rate as the corresponding east-west scale. As a result of this feature, angles drawn on this type of map are correct. Distortion on a Mercator map increases at an increasing rate as one moves toward higher latitudes. Mercator maps are used in navigation because a line drawn between two points of the Earth has true direction. However, this line may not represent the shortest distance between these points.
Figure 2a-2: Earth as observed from a vantage point in space. This orthographic projection of the Earth's surface creates a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional surface. The orthographic projection distorts distance, shape, and the size of areas.

Figure 2a-3: Mercator map projection. The Mercator projection is one of the most common systems in use today. It was specifically designed for nautical navigation.

The Gall-Peters projection was developed to correct some of the distortion found in the Mercator system (Figure 2a-4). The Mercator projection causes area to be gradually distorted from the equator to the poles. This distortion makes middle and high latitude countries to be bigger than they are in reality. The Gall-Peters projection corrects this distortion making the area occupied by the world's nations more comparable.
Figure 2a-4: Gall-Peters projection. The Gall-Peters projection corrects the distortion of area common in Mercator maps. As a result, it removes the bias in Mercator maps that draws low latitude countries as being smaller than nations in middle and high latitudes. This projection has been officially adopted by a number of United Nations organizations.

The Miller Cylindrical projection is another common two-dimensional map used to represent the entire Earth in a rectangular area (Figure 2a-5). In this project, the Earth is mathematically projected onto a cylinder tangent at the equator. This projection in then unrolled to produce a flat two-dimensional representation of the Earth's surface. This projection reduces some of the scale exaggeration present in the Mercator map. However, the Miller Cylindrical projection describes shapes and areas with considerable distortion and directions are true only along the equator.
Figure 2a-5: The Miller Cylindrical projection.

Figure 2a-6 displays the Robinson projection. This projection was developed to show the entire Earth with less distortion of area. However, this feature requires a tradeoff in terms of inaccurate map direction and distance.
Figure 2a-6: Robinson's projection. This projection is common in maps that require somewhat accurate representation of area. This map projection was originally developed for Rand McNally and Company in 1961.

The Mollweide projection improves on the Robinson projection and has less area distortion (Figure 2a-7). The final projection presented presents areas on a map that are proportional to the same areas on the actual surface of the Earth (Figure 2a-8). However, this Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection suffers from distance, shape, and direction distortions.
Figure 2a-7: Mollweide projection. On this projection the only parallels (line of latitude) drawn of true length are 40° 40' North and South. From the equator to 40° 40' North and South the east-west scale is illustrated too small. From the poles to 40° 40' North and South the east-west scale is illustrated too large.

Figure 2a-8: Sinusoidal Equal-Area projection.

Map Scale
Maps are rarely drawn at the same scale as the real world. Most maps are made at a scale that is much smaller than the area of the actual surface being depicted. The amount of reduction that has taken place is normally identified somewhere on the map. This measurement is commonly referred to as the map scale. Conceptually, we can think of map scale as the ratio between the distance between any two points on the map compared to the actual ground distance represented. This concept can also be expressed mathematically as:

On most maps, the map scale is represented by a simple fraction or ratio. This type of description of a map's scale is called a representative fraction. For example, a map where one unit (centimeter, meter, inch, kilometer, etc.) on the illustration represents 1,000,000 of these same units on the actual surface of the Earth would have a representative fraction of 1/1,000,000 (fraction) or 1:1,000,000 (ratio). Of these mathematical representations of scale, the ratio form is most commonly found on maps.
Scale can also be described on a map by a verbal statement. For example, 1:1,000,000 could be verbally described as "1 centimeter on the map equals 10 kilometers on the Earth's surface" or "1 inch represents approximately 16 miles".
Most maps also use graphic scale to describe the distance relationships between the map and the real world. In a graphic scale, an illustration is used to depict distances on the map in common units of measurement (Figure 2a-9). Graphic scales are quite useful because they can be used to measure distances on a map quickly.
Figure 2a-9: The following graphic scale was drawn for map with a scale of 1:250,000. In the illustration distances in miles and kilometers are graphically shown.

Maps are often described, in a relative sense, as being either small scale or large scale. Figure 2a-10 helps to explain this concept. In Figure 2a-10, we have maps representing an area of the world at scales of 1:100,000, 1:50,000, and 1:25,000. Of this group, the map drawn at 1:100,000 has the smallest scale relative to the other two maps. The map with the largest scale is map C which is drawn at a scale of 1:25,000.
Figure 2a-10: The following three illustrations describe the relationship between map scale and the size of the ground area shown at three different map scales. The map on the far left has the smallest scale, while the map on the far right has the largest scale. Note what happens to the amount of area represented on the maps when the scale is changed. A doubling of the scale (1:100,000 to 1:50,000 and 1:50,000 to 1:25,000) causes the area shown on the map to be reduced to 25% or one-quarter.

(b). Location, Distance, and Direction on Maps



Location on Maps
Most maps allow us to specify the location of points on the Earth's surface using a coordinate system. For a two-dimensional map, this coordinate system can use simple geometric relationships between the perpendicular axes on a grid system to define spatial location. Figure 2b-1 illustrates how the location of a point can be defined on a coordinate system.
Figure 2b-1: A grid coordinate system defines the location of points from the distance traveled along two perpendicular axes from some stated origin. In the example above, the two axes are labeled X and Y. The origin is located in the lower left hand corner. Unit distance traveled along each axis from the origin is shown. In this coordinate system, the value associated with the X-axis is given first, following by the value assigned from the Y-axis. The location represented by the star has the coordinates 7 (X-axis), 4 (Y-axis).

Two types of coordinate systems are currently in general use in geography: the geographical coordinate system and the rectangular (also called Cartesian) coordinate system.

Geographical Coordinate System
The geographical coordinate system measures location from only two values, despite the fact that the locations are described for a three-dimensional surface. The two values used to define location are both measured relative to the polar axis of the Earth. The two measures used in the geographic coordinate system are called latitude and longitude.
Figure 2b-2: Lines of latitude or parallels are drawn parallel to the equator (shown in red) as circles that span the Earth's surface. These parallels are measure in degrees (°). There are 90 angular degrees of latitude from the equator to each of the poles. The equator has an assigned value of 0°. Measurements of latitude are also defined as being either north or south of equator to distinguish the hemisphere of their location. Lines of longitude or meridians are circular arcs that meet at the poles. There are 180° of longitude either side of a starting meridian which is known the Prime Meridian. The Prime Meridian has a designated value of 0°. Measurements of longitude are also defined as being either west or east of the Prime Meridian.

Latitude measures the north-south position of locations on the Earth's surface relative to a point found at the center of the Earth (Figure 2b-2). This central point is also located on the Earth's rotational or polar axis. The equator is the starting point for the measurement of latitude. The equator has a value of zero degrees. A line of latitude or parallel of 30° North has an angle that is 30° north of the plane represented by the equator (Figure 2b-3). The maximum value that latitude can attain is either 90° North or South. These lines of latitude run parallel to the rotational axis of the Earth.
Figure 2b-3: Measurement of latitude and longitude relative to the equator and the Prime Meridian and the Earth's rotational or polar axis.

Longitude measures the west-east position of locations on the Earth's surface relative to a circular arc called the Prime Meridian (Figure 2b-2). The position of the Prime Meridian was determined by international agreement to be in-line with the location of the former astronomical observatory at Greenwich, England. Because the Earth's circumference is similar to circle, it was decided to measure longitude in degrees. The number of degrees found in a circle is 360. The Prime Meridian has a value of zero degrees. A line of longitude or meridian of 45° West has an angle that is 45° west of the plane represented by the Prime Meridian (Figure 2b-3). The maximum value that a meridian of longitude can have is 180° which is the distance halfway around a circle. This meridian is called the International Date Line. Designations of west and east are used to distinguish where a location is found relative to the Prime Meridian. For example, all of the locations in North America have a longitude that is designated west.

Universal Transverse Mercator System (UTM)
Another commonly used method to describe location on the Earth is the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid system. This rectangular coordinate system is metric, incorporating the meter as its basic unit of measurement. UTM also uses the Transverse Mercator projection system to model the Earth's spherical surface onto a two-dimensional plane. The UTM system divides the world's surface into 60 - six degree longitude wide zones that run north-south (Figure 2b-5). These zones start at the International Date Line and are successively numbered in an eastward direction (Figure 2b-5). Each zone stretches from 84° North to 80° South (Figure 2b-4). In the center of each of these zones is a central meridian. Location is measured in these zones from a false origin which is determined relative to the intersection of the equator and the central meridian for each zone. For locations in the Northern Hemisphere, the false origin is 500,000 meters west of the central meridian on the equator. Coordinate measurements of location in the Northern Hemisphere using the UTM system are made relative to this point in meters in eastings (longitudinal distance) and northings (latitudinal distance). The point defined by the intersection of 50° North and 9° West would have a UTM coordinate of Zone 29, 500000 meters east (E), 5538630 meters north (N) (see Figures 2b-4 and 2b-5). In the Southern Hemisphere, the origin is 10,000,000 meters south and 500,000 meters west of the equator and central meridian, respectively. The location found at 50° South and 9° West would have a UTM coordinate of Zone 29, 500000 meters E, 4461369 meters N (remember that northing in the Southern Hemisphere is measured from 10,000,000 meters south of the equator - see Figures 2b-4 and 2b-5).

Figure 2b-4: The following illustration describes the characteristics of the UTM zone "29" found between 12 to 6° West longitude. Note that the zone has been split into two halves. The half on the left represents the area found in the Northern Hemisphere. The Southern Hemisphere is located on the right. The blue line represents the central meridian for this zone. Locations measurements for this zone are calculated relative to a false origin. In the Northern Hemisphere, this origin is located 500,000 meters west of the equator. The Southern Hemisphere UTM measurements are determined relative to a origin located at 10,000,000 meters south and 500,000 meters west of the equator and central meridian, respectively.

The UTM system has been modified to make measurements less confusing. In this modification, the six degree wide zones are divided into smaller pieces or quadrilaterals that are eight degrees of latitude tall. Each of these rows is labeled, starting at 80° South, with the letters C to X consecutively with I and O being omitted (Figure 2b-5). The last row X differs from the other rows and extends from 72 to 84° North latitude (twelve degrees tall). Each of the quadrilaterals or grid zones are identified by their number/letter designation. In total, 1200 quadrilaterals are defined in the UTM system.
The quadrilateral system allows us to further define location using the UTM system. For the location 50° North and 9° West, the UTM coordinate can now be expressed as Grid Zone 29U, 500000 meters E, 5538630 meters N.
Figure 2b-5: The UTM system also uses a grid system to break the Earth up into 1200 quadrilaterals. To keep the illustration manageable, most of these zones have been excluded. Designation of each quadrilaterals is accomplished with a number-letter system. Along the horizontal bottom, the six degree longitude wide zones are numbered, starting at 180° West longitude, from 1 to 60. The twenty vertical rows are assigned letters C to X with I and O excluded. The letter, C, begins at 80° South latitude. Note that the rows are 8 degrees of latitude wide, except for the last row X which is 12 degrees wide. According to the reference system, the bright green quadrilateral has the grid reference 29V (note that in this system west-east coordinate is given first, followed by the south-north coordinate). This grid zone is found between 56 and 64° North latitude and 6 and 12° West longitude.

Each UTM quadrilateral is further subdivided into a number of 100,000 by 100,000 meter zones. These subdivisions are coded by a system of letter combinations where the same two-letter combination is not repeated within 18 degrees of latitude and longitude. Within each of the 100,000 meter squares one can specify location to one-meter accuracy using a 5 digit eastings and northings reference system.
The UTM grid system is displayed on all United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Topographic Series (NTS) of Canada maps. On USGS 7.5-minute quadrangle maps (1:24,000 scale), 15-minute quadrangle maps (1:50,000, 1:62,500, and standard-edition 1:63,360 scales), and Canadian 1:50,000 maps the UTM grid lines are drawn at intervals of 1,000 meters, and are shown either with blue ticks at the edge of the map or by full blue grid lines. On USGS maps at 1:100,000 and 1:250,000 scale and Canadian 1:250,000 scale maps a full UTM grid is shown at intervals of 10,000 meters. Figure 2b-6 describes how the UTM grid system can be used to determine location on a 1:50,000 National Topographic Series of Canada map.
Figure 2b-6: The top left hand corner the "Tofino" 1:50,000 National Topographic Series of Canada map is shown above. The blue lines and associated numbers on the map margin are used to determine location by way of the UTM grid system. Abbreviated UTM 1,000-meter values or principle digits are shown by numbers on the map margin that vary from 0 to 100 (100 is actually given the value 00). In each of the corners of the map, two of the principle digits are expressed in their full UTM coordinate form. On the image we can see 283000 m E. and 5458000 m N. The red dot is found in the center of the grid defined by principle numbers 85 to 86 easting and 57 to 58 northing. A more complete UTM grid reference for this location would be 285500 m E. and 5457500 m N. Information found on the map margin also tells us (not shown) that the area displayed is in Grid Zone 10U and the 100,000 m squares BK and CK are located on this map.

Distance on Maps
In section 2a, w e have learned that depicting the Earth's three-dimensional surface on a two-dimensional map creates a number of distortions that involve distance, area, and direction. It is possible to create maps that are somewhat equidistance. However, even these types of maps have some form of distance distortion. Equidistance maps can only control distortion along either lines of latitude or lines of longitude. Distance is often correct on equidistance maps only in the direction of latitude.
On a map that has a large scale, 1:125,000 or larger, distance distortion is usually insignificant. An example of a large-scale map is a standard topographic map. On these maps measuring straight line distance is simple. Distance is first measured on the map using a ruler. This measurement is then converted into a real world distance using the map's scale. For example, if we measured a distance of 10 centimeters on a map that had a scale of 1:10,000, we would multiply 10 (distance) by 10,000 (scale). Thus, the actual distance in the real world would be 100,000 centimeters.
Measuring distance along map features that are not straight is a little more difficult. One technique that can be employed for this task is to use a number of straight-line segments. The accuracy of this method is dependent on the number of straight-line segments used (Figure 2b-7). Another method for measuring curvilinear map distances is to use a mechanical device called an opisometer. This device uses a small rotating wheel that records the distance traveled. The recorded distance is measured by this device either in centimeters or inches.
Figure 2b-7: Measurement of distance on a map feature using straight-line segments.

Direction on Maps
Like distance, direction is difficult to measure on maps because of the distortion produced by projection systems. However, this distortion is quite small on maps with scales larger than 1:125,000. Direction is usually measured relative to the location of North or South Pole. Directions determined from these locations are said to be relative to True North or True South. The magnetic poles can also be used to measure direction. However, these points on the Earth are located in spatially different spots from the geographic North and South Pole. The North Magnetic Pole is located at 78.3° North, 104.0° West near Ellef Ringnes Island, Canada. In the Southern Hemisphere, the South Magnetic Pole is located in Commonwealth Day, Antarctica and has a geographical location of 65° South, 139° East. The magnetic poles are also not fixed overtime and shift their spatial position overtime.
Topographic maps normally have a declination diagram drawn on them (Figure 2b-8). On Northern Hemisphere maps, declination diagrams describe the angular difference between Magnetic North and True North. On the map, the angle of True North is parallel to the depicted lines of longitude. Declination diagrams also show the direction of Grid North. Grid North is an angle that is parallel to the easting lines found on the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid system (Figure 2b-8).
Figure 2b-8: This declination diagram describes the angular difference between Grid, True, and Magnetic North. This illustration also shows how angles are measured relative grid, true, and magnetic azimuth.

In the field, the direction of features is often determined by a magnetic compass which measures angles relative to Magnetic North. Using the declination diagram found on a map, individuals can convert their field measures of magnetic direction into directions that are relative to either Grid or True North. Compass directions can be described by using either the azimuth system or the bearing system. The azimuth system calculates direction in degrees of a full circle. A full circle has 360 degrees (Figure 2b-9). In the azimuth system, north has a direction of either the 0 or 360°. East and west have an azimuth of 90° and 270°, respectively. Due south has an azimuth of 180°.
Figure 2b-9: Azimuth system for measuring direction is based on the 360 degrees found in a full circle. The illustration shows the angles associated with the major cardinal points of the compass. Note that angles are determined clockwise from north.
 
The bearing system divides direction into four quadrants of 90 degrees. In this system, north and south are the dominant directions. Measurements are determined in degrees from one of these directions. The measurement of two angles based on this system are described in Figure 2b-10.
Figure 2b-10: The bearing system uses four quadrants of 90 degrees to measure direction. The illustration shows two direction measurements. These measurements are made relative to either north or south. North and south are given the measurement 0 degrees. East and west have a value of 90 degrees. The first measurement (green) is found in the north - east quadrant. As a result, its measurement is north 75 degrees to the east or N75°E. The first measurement (orange) is found in the south - west quadrant. Its measurement is south 15 degrees to the west or S15°W.

Global Positioning Systems
Determination of location in field conditions was once a difficult task. In most cases, it required the use of a topographic map and landscape features to estimate location. However, technology has now made this task very simple. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) can calculate one's location to an accuracy of about 30-meters (Figure 2b-11). These systems consist of two parts: a GPS receiver and a network of many satellites. Radio transmissions from the satellites are broadcasted continually. The GPS receiver picks up these broadcasts and through triangulation calculates the altitude and spatial position of the receiving unit. A minimum of three satellite is required for triangulation.

Figure 2b-11: Handheld Global Positioning Systems (GPS). GPS receivers can determine latitude, longitude, and elevation anywhere on or above the Earth's surface from signals transmitted by a number of satellites. These units can also be used to determine direction, distance traveled, and determine routes of travel in field situations.

(c). Map Location and Time Zones



Before the late nineteenth century, time keeping was essentially a local phenomenon. Each town would set their clocks according to the motions of the Sun. Noon was defined as the time when the Sun reached its maximum altitude above the horizon. Cities and towns would assign a clockmaker to calibrate a town clock to these solar motions. This town clock would then represent "official" time and the citizens would set their watches and clocks accordingly.
The later half of the nineteenth century was time of increased movement of humans. In the United States and Canada, large numbers of people were moving west and settlements in these areas began expanding rapidly. To support these new settlements, railroads moved people and resources between the various cities and towns. However, because of the nature of how local time was kept, the railroads experience major problems in constructing timetables for the various stops. Timetables could only become more efficient if the towns and cities adopted some type of standard method of keeping time.
In 1878, Canadian Sir Sanford Fleming suggested a system of worldwide time zones that would simplify the keeping of time across the Earth. Fleming proposed that the globe be divided into 24 time zones, each 15 degrees of longitude in width. Since the world rotates once every 24 hours on its axis and there are 360 degrees of longitude, each hour of Earth rotation represents 15 degrees of longitude.
Railroad companies in Canada and the United States began using Fleming's time zones in 1883. In 1884, an International Prime Meridian Conference was held in Washington D.C. to adopt the standardize method of time keeping and determined the location of the Prime Meridian. Conference members agreed that the longitude of Greenwich, England would become zero degrees longitude and established the 24 time zones relative to the Prime Meridian. It was also proposed that the measurement of time on the Earth would be made relative to the astronomical measurements at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. This time standard was called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Today, many nations operate on variations of the time zones suggested by Sir Fleming. Figure 2c-1 describes the various time zones currently used on the Earth. In this system, time in the various zones is measured relative the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) standard at the Prime Meridian. Coordinated Universal Time became the standard legal reference of time all over the world in 1972. UTC is determined from six primary atomic clocks that are coordinated by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) located in France. The numbers located at the bottom of Figure 2c-1 indicate how many hours each zone is earlier (negative sign) or later (positive sign) than the Coordinated Universal Time standard. Also note that national boundaries and political matters influence the shape of the time zone boundaries. For example, China uses a single time zone (eight hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time) instead of five different time zones.
Figure 2c-1: Modern standard times zones as measured relative to Coordinated Universal Time. The numbers located at the bottom indicate how many hours each zone is earlier (negative sign) or later (positive sign) than Coordinated Universal Time. Some nations (for example, Australia and India) have offset their time zones by half an hour. This situation is not shown on the illustration.

(d). Topographic Maps



Introduction
A topographic map is a detailed and accurate two-dimensional representation of natural and human-made features on the Earth's surface. These maps are used for a number of applications, from camping, hunting, fishing, and hiking to urban planning, resource management, and surveying. The most distinctive characteristic of a topographic map is that the three-dimensional shape of the Earth's surface is modeled by the use of contour lines. Contours are imaginary lines that connect locations of similar elevation. Contours make it possible to represent the height of mountains and steepness of slopes on a two-dimensional map surface. Topographic maps also use a variety of symbols to describe both natural and human made features such as roads, buildings, quarries, lakes, streams, and vegetation.
Topographic maps produced by the Canadian National Topographic System (NTS) are generally available in two different scales: 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. Maps with a scale of 1:50,000 are relatively large-scale covering an area approximately 1000 square kilometers. At this scale, features as small as a single home can be shown. The smaller scale 1:250,000 topographic map is more of a general purpose reconnaissance-type map. A map of this scale covers the same area of land as sixteen 1:50,000 scale maps.
In the United States, topographic maps have been made by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) since 1879. Topographic coverage of the United States is available at scales of 1:24,000, 1:25,000 (metric), 1:62,250, 1:63,360 (Alaska only), 1:100,000 and 1:250,000.

Topographic Map Symbols
Topographic maps use symbols to represent natural and human constructed features found in the environment. The symbols used to represent features can be of three types: points, lines, and polygons. Points are used to depict features like bridges and buildings. Lines are used to graphically illustrate features that are linear. Some common linear features include roads, railways, and rivers. However, we also need to include representations of area, in the case of forested land or cleared land; this is done through the use of color.
The set of symbols used on Canadian National Topographic System (NTS) maps has been standardized to simplify the map construction process. A description of the complete set of symbols available can be found in a published guide titled: Standards and Specifications for Polychrome Maps. This guide guarantees uniform illustration of surface features on both 1:50 000 and 1:250 000 topographic maps. Despite the existence of this guide, we can find that some topographic maps may use different symbols to depict a feature. This occurs because the symbols used are graphically refined over time - as a result the Standards and Specifications for Polychrome Maps guide is always under revision.
The tables below describe some of the common symbols used on Canadian National Topographic System maps (source: Centre for Topographic Information, Natural Resources Canada). See the following link for the symbols commonly used on USGS topographic maps.
Transportation Features - Roads and Trails

Feature Name Symbol
Road - hard surface, all season
Road symbol
Road - hard surface, all season
Road - loose or stabilized surface, all season
Road - loose surface, dry weather
Rapid transit route, road
Road under construction
Vehicle track or winter road
Trail or portage
Traffic circle
Highway route number

Transportation Features - Railways and Airports
Feature Name Symbol
Railway - multiple track
Railway - single track
Railway sidings
Railway - rapid transit
Railway - under construction
Railway - abandoned
Railway on road
Railway station
Airfield; Heliport
Airfield, position approximate
Airfield runways; paved, unpaved

Other Transportation Features - Tunnels, Bridges, etc.
Feature Name Symbol
Tunnel; railway, road
Bridge
Bridge; swing, draw, lift
Footbridge
Causeway
Ford
Cut
Embankment
Snow shed
Barrier or gate

Hydrographic Features - Human Made
Feature Name Symbol
Lock
Dam; large, small
Dam carrying road
Footbridge
Ferry Route
Pier; Wharf; Seawall
Breakwater
Slip; Boat ramp; Drydock
Canal; navigable or irrigation
Canal, abandoned
Shipwreck, exposed
Crib or abandoned bridge pier
Submarine cable
Seaplane anchorage; Seaplane base

Hydrographic Features - Naturally Occurring
Feature Name Symbol
Falls
Rapids
Direction of flow arrow
Dry river bed
Stream - intermittent
Sand in Water or Foreshore Flats
Rocky ledge, reef
Flooded area
Marsh, muskeg
Swamp
Well, water or brine; Spring
Rocks in water or small islands
Water elevation

Terrain Features - Elevation
Feature Name Symbol
Horizontal control point; Bench mark with elevation
Precise elevation
Contours; index, intermediate
Depression contours

Terrain Features - Geology and Geomorphology
Feature Name Symbol
Cliff or escarpment
Esker
Pingo
Sand
Moraine
Quarry
Cave

Terrain Features - Land Cover
Feature Name Symbol
Wooded area
Orchard
Vineyard

Human Activity Symbols - Recreation
Feature Name
Symbol
Sports track
Swimming pool
Stadium
Golf course
Golf driving range
Campground; Picnic site
Ski area, ski jump
Rifle range with butts
Historic site or point of interest; Navigation light
Aerial cableway, ski lift

Human Activity Symbols - Agriculture and Industry
Feature Name Symbol
Silo
Elevator
Greenhouse
Wind-operated device; Mine
Landmark object (with height); tower, chimney, etc.
Oil or natural gas facility
Pipeline, multiple pipelines, control valve
Pipeline, underground
multiple pipelines, underground
Electric facility
Power transmission line
multiple lines
Telephone line
Fence
Crane, vertical and horizontal
Dyke or levee
Firebreak
Cut line

Human Activity Symbols - Buildings
Feature Name Symbol
School; Fire station; Police station
Church; Non-Christian place of worship; Shrine
Building
Service centre
Customs post
Coast Guard station
Cemetery
Ruins
Fort

Contour Lines
Topographic maps can describe vertical information through the use of contour lines (contours). A contour line is an isoline that connects points on a map that have the same elevation. Contours are often drawn on a map at a uniform vertical distance. This distance is called the contour interval. The map in the Figure 2d-1 shows contour lines with an interval of 100 feet. Note that every fifth brown contour lines is drawn bold and has the appropriate elevation labeled on it. These contours are called index contours. On Figure 2d-1 they represent elevations of 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 feet and so on. The interval at which contours are drawn on a map depends on the amount of the relief depicted and the scale of the map.
Figure 2d-1: Portion of the "Tofino" 1:50,000 National Topographic Series of Canada map. The brown lines drawn on this map are contour lines. Each line represents a vertical increase in elevation of 100 feet. The bold brown contour lines are called index contours. The index contours are labeled with their appropriate elevation which increases at a rate of 500 feet. Note the blue line drawn to separate water from land represents an elevation of 0 feet or sea-level.

Contour lines provide us with a simple effective system for describing landscape configuration on a two-dimensional map. The arrangement, spacing, and shape of the contours provide the user of the map with some idea of what the actual topographic configuration of the land surface looks like. Contour intervals the are spaced closely together describe a steep slope. Gentle slopes are indicated by widely spaced contours. Contour lines that V upwards indicate the presence of a river valley. Ridges are shown by contours that V downwards.

Topographic Profiles
A topographic profile is a two-dimensional diagram that describes the landscape in vertical cross-section. Topographic profiles are often created from the contour information found on topographic maps. The simplest way to construct a topographic profile is to place a sheet of blank paper along a horizontal transect of interest. From the map, the elevation of the various contours is transferred on to the edge of the paper from one end of the transect to the other. Now on a sheet of graph paper use the x-axis to represent the horizontal distance covered by the transect. The y-axis is used to represent the vertical dimension and measures the change in elevation along the transect. Most people exaggerate the measure of elevation on the y-axis to make changes in relief stand out. Place the beginning of the transect as copied on the piece of paper at the intersect of the x and y-axis on the graph paper. The contour information on the paper's edge is now copied onto the piece of graph paper. Figure 2d-2 shows a topographic profile drawn from the information found on the transect A-B above.
Figure 1d-2: The following topographic profile shows the vertical change in surface elevation along the transect AB from Figure 1d-1. A vertical exaggeration of about 4.2 times was used in the profile (horizontal scale = 1:50,000, vertical scale = 1:12,000 and vertical exaggeration = horizontal scale/vertical scale).

Military Grid Reference System and Map Location
Two rectangular grid systems are available on topographic maps for identifying the location of points. These systems are the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid system and the Military Grid Reference System. The Military Grid Reference System is a simplified form of Universal Transverse Mercator grid system and it provides a very quick and easy method of referencing a location on a topographic map. On a topographic maps with a scale 1:50,000 and larger, the Military Grid Reference System is superimposed on the surface of map as blue colored series of equally spaced horizontal and vertical lines. Identifying numbers for each of these lines is found along the map's margin. Each identifying number consists of two digits which range from a value of 00 to 99 (Figure 2d-3). Each individual square in the grid system represents a distance of a 1000 by 1000 meters and the total size of the grid is 100,000 by 100,000 meters.
One problem associated with the Military Grid Reference System is the fact that reference numbers must be repeated every 100,000 meters. To overcome this difficulty, a method was devised to identify each 100,000 by 100,000 meter grid with two identifying letters which are printed in blue on the border of all topographic maps (note some maps may show more than one grid). When making reference to a location with the Military Grid Reference System identifying letters are always given before the horizontal and vertical coordinate numbers.
Figure 2d-3: Portion of a Military Grid Reference System found on a topographic map. Coordinates on this system are based on a X (horizontal increasing from left to right) and Y (vertical increasing from bottom to top) system. The symbol depicting a church is located in the square 9194. Note that the value along the X-axis (easting) is given first followed by the value on the Y-axis (northing). (Source: Centre for Topographic Information, Natural Resources Canada).

Each individual square in the Military Grid Reference System can be further divided into 100 smaller squares (ten by ten). This division allows us to calculate the location of an object to within 100 meters. Figure 1d-4 indicates that the church is six tenths of the way between lines 91 and 92, and four tenths of the way between lines 94 and 95. Using these values, we can state that the easting as being 916 and the northing as 944. By convention, these two numbers are combined into a coordinate reference of 916944.
Figure 2d-4: Further determination of the location of the church described in Figure 2d-3. Using the calibrated ruler we can now suggest the location of the church to be 916 on the X-axis and 944 on the Y-axis. Note that the location reference always has an even number of digits, with the three digits representing the easting and the second three the northing. (Source: Centre for Topographic Information, Natural Resources Canada).

(e). Introduction to Remote Sensing



Introduction
Remote sensing can be defined as the collection of data about an object from a distance. Humans and many other types of animals accomplish this task with aid of eyes or by the sense of smell or hearing. Geographers use the technique of remote sensing to monitor or measure phenomena found in the Earth's lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Remote sensing of the environment by geographers is usually done with the help of mechanical devices known as remote sensors. These gadgets have a greatly improved ability to receive and record information about an object without any physical contact. Often, these sensors are positioned away from the object of interest by using helicopters, planes, and satellites. Most sensing devices record information about an object by measuring an object's transmission of electromagnetic energy from reflecting and radiating surfaces.
Remote sensing imagery has many applications in mapping land-use and cover, agriculture, soils mapping, forestry, city planning, archaeological investigations, military observation, and geomorphological surveying, among other uses. For example, foresters use aerial photographs for preparing forest cover maps, locating possible access roads, and measuring quantities of trees harvested. Specialized photography using color infrared film has also been used to detect disease and insect damage in forest trees.
The simplest form of remote sensing uses photographic cameras to record information from visible or near infrared wavelengths (Table 2e-1). In the late 1800s, cameras were positioned above the Earth's surface in balloons or kites to take oblique aerial photographs of the landscape. During World War I, aerial photography played an important role in gathering information about the position and movements of enemy troops. These photographs were often taken from airplanes. After the war, civilian use of aerial photography from airplanes began with the systematic vertical imaging of large areas of Canada, the United States, and Europe. Many of these images were used to construct topographic and other types of reference maps of the natural and human-made features found on the Earth's surface.

Table 2e-1: Major regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Region Name
Wavelength
Comments
Gamma Ray
< 0.03 nanometers
Entirely absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere and not available for remote sensing.
X-ray
0.03 to 30 nanometers
Entirely absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere and not available for remote sensing.
Ultraviolet
0.03 to 0.4 micrometers
Wavelengths from 0.03 to 0.3 micrometers absorbed by ozone in the Earth's atmosphere.
Photographic Ultraviolet
0.3 to 0.4 micrometers
Available for remote sensing the Earth. Can be imaged with photographic film.
Visible
0.4 to 0.7 micrometers
Available for remote sensing the Earth. Can be imaged with photographic film.
Infrared
0.7 to 100 micrometers
Available for remote sensing the Earth. Can be imaged with photographic film.
Reflected Infrared
0.7 to 3.0 micrometers
Available for remote sensing the Earth. Near Infrared 0.7 to 0.9 micrometers. Can be imaged with photographic film.
Thermal Infrared
3.0 to 14 micrometers
Available for remote sensing the Earth. This wavelength cannot be captured with photographic film. Instead, mechanical sensors are used to image this wavelength band.
Microwave or Radar
0.1 to 100 centimeters
Longer wavelengths of this band can pass through clouds, fog, and rain. Images using this band can be made with sensors that actively emit microwaves.
Radio
> 100 centimeters
Not normally used for remote sensing the Earth.
 
The development of color photography following World War II gave a more natural depiction of surface objects. Color aerial photography also greatly increased the amount of information gathered from an object. The human eye can differentiate many more shades of color than tones of gray (Figure 2e-1 and 2e-2). In 1942, Kodak developed color infrared film, which recorded wavelengths in the near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This film type had good haze penetration and the ability to determine the type and health of vegetation.
Figure 2e-1: The rows of color tiles are replicated in the right as complementary gray tones. On the left, we can make out 18 to 20 different shades of color. On the right, only 7 shades of gray can be distinguished.

Figure 2e-2: Comparison of black and white and color images of the same scene. Note how the increased number of tones found on the color image make the scene much easier to interpret. (Source: University of California at Berkley - Earth Sciences and Map Library).

Satellite Remote Sensing
In the 1960s, a revolution in remote sensing technology began with the deployment of space satellites. From their high vantage-point, satellites have a greatly extended view of the Earth's surface. The first meteorological satellite, TIROS-1 (Figure 2e-3), was launched by the United States using an Atlas rocket on April 1, 1960. This early weather satellite used vidicon cameras to scan wide areas of the Earth's surface. Early satellite remote sensors did not use conventional film to produce their images. Instead, the sensors digitally capture the images using a device similar to a television camera. Once captured, this data is then transmitted electronically to receiving stations found on the Earth's surface. The image below (Figure 2e-4) is from TIROS-7 of a mid-latitude cyclone off the coast of New Zealand.
Figure 2e-3: TIROS-1 satellite. (Source: NASA - Remote Sensing Tutorial).

Figure 2e-4: TIROS-7 image of a mid-latitude cyclone off the coast of New Zealand, August 24, 1964. (Source: NASA - Looking at Earth From Space).

Today, the GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) system of satellites provides most of the remotely sensed weather information for North America. To cover the complete continent and adjacent oceans two satellites are employed in a geostationary orbit. The western half of North America and the eastern Pacific Ocean is monitored by GOES-10, which is directly above the equator and 135° West longitude. The eastern half of North America and the western Atlantic are cover by GOES-8. The GOES-8 satellite is located overhead of the equator and 75° West longitude. Advanced sensors aboard the GOES satellite produce a continuous data stream so images can be viewed at any instance. The imaging sensor produces visible and infrared images of the Earth's terrestrial surface and oceans (Figure 2e-5). Infrared images can depict weather conditions even during the night. Another sensor aboard the satellite can determine vertical temperature profiles, vertical moisture profiles, total precipitable water, and atmospheric stability.
Figure 2e-5: Color image from GOES-8 of hurricanes Madeline and Lester off the coast of Mexico, October 17, 1998. (Source: NASA - Looking at Earth From Space).
 
In the 1970s, the second revolution in remote sensing technology began with the deployment of the Landsat satellites. Since this 1972, several generations of Landsat satellites with their Multispectral Scanners (MSS) have been providing continuous coverage of the Earth for almost 30 years. Current, Landsat satellites orbit the Earth's surface at an altitude of approximately 700 kilometers. Spatial resolution of objects on the ground surface is 79 x 56 meters. Complete coverage of the globe requires 233 orbits and occurs every 16 days. The Multispectral Scanner records a zone of the Earth's surface that is 185 kilometers wide in four wavelength bands: band 4 at 0.5 to 0.6 micrometers, band 5 at 0.6 to 0.7 micrometers, band 6 at 0.7 to 0.8 micrometers, and band 7 at 0.8 to 1.1 micrometers. Bands 4 and 5 receive the green and red wavelengths in the visible light range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The last two bands image near-infrared wavelengths. A second sensing system was added to Landsat satellites launched after 1982. This imaging system, known as the Thematic Mapper, records seven wavelength bands from the visible to far-infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (Figure 2e-6). In addition, the ground resolution of this sensor was enhanced to 30 x 20 meters. This modification allows for greatly improved clarity of imaged objects.
Figure 2e-6: The Landsat 7 enhanced Thematic Mapper instrument. (Source: Landsat 7 Home Page).

The usefulness of satellites for remote sensing has resulted in several other organizations launching their own devices. In France, the SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre) satellite program has launched five satellites since 1986. Since 1986, SPOT satellites have produced more than 10 million images. SPOT satellites use two different sensing systems to image the planet. One sensing system produces black and white panchromatic images from the visible band (0.51 to 0.73 micrometers) with a ground resolution of 10 x 10 meters. The other sensing device is multispectral capturing green, red, and reflected infrared bands at 20 x 20 meters (Figure 2d-7). SPOT-5, which was launched in 2002, is much improved from the first four versions of SPOT satellites. SPOT-5 has a maximum ground resolution of 2.5 x 2.5 meters in both panchromatic mode and multispectral operation.
Figure 2e-7: SPOT false-color image of the southern portion of Manhatten Island and part of Long Island, New York. The bridges on the image are (left to right): Brooklyn Bridge, Manhattan Bridge, and the Williamsburg Bridge. (Source: SPOT Image).

Radarsat-1 was launched by the Canadian Space Agency in November, 1995. As a remote sensing device, Radarsat is quite different from the Landsat and SPOT satellites. Radarsat is an active remote sensing system that transmits and receives microwave radiation. Landsat and SPOT sensors passively measure reflected radiation at wavelengths roughly equivalent to those detected by our eyes. Radarsat's microwave energy penetrates clouds, rain, dust, or haze and produces images regardless of the Sun's illumination allowing it to image in darkness. Radarsat images have a resolution between 8 to 100 meters. This sensor has found important applications in crop monitoring, defence surveillance, disaster monitoring, geologic resource mapping, sea-ice mapping and monitoring, oil slick detection, and digital elevation modeling (Figure 2e-8).
Figure 2e-8: Radarsat image acquired on March 21, 1996, over Bathurst Island in Nunavut, Canada. This image shows Radarsat's ability to distinguish different types of bedrock. The light shades on this image (C) represent areas of limestone, while the darker regions (B) are composed of sedimentary siltstone. The very dark area marked A is Bracebridge Inlet which joins the Arctic ocean. (Source: Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing - Geological Mapping Bathurst Island, Nunavut, Canada March 21, 1996).

Principles of Object Identification
Most people have no problem identifying objects from photographs taken from an oblique angle. Such views are natural to the human eye and are part of our everyday experience. However, most remotely sensed images are taken from an overhead or vertical perspective and from distances quite removed from ground level. Both of these circumstances make the interpretation of natural and human-made objects somewhat difficult. In addition, images obtained from devices that receive and capture electromagnetic wavelengths outside human vision can present views that are quite unfamiliar.
To overcome the potential difficulties involved in image recognition, professional image interpreters use a number of characteristics to help them identify remotely sensed objects. Some of these characteristics include:
Shape: this characteristic alone may serve to identify many objects. Examples include the long linear lines of highways, the intersecting runways of an airfield, the perfectly rectangular shape of buildings, or the recognizable shape of an outdoor baseball diamond (Figure 2e-9).
Figure 2e-9: Yankee stadium in Bronx, New York. Baseball stadiums have an obvious shape that can be easily recognized even from vertical aerial photographs. (Source: Google Earth).

Size: noting the relative and absolute sizes of objects is important in their identification. The scale of the image determines the absolute size of an object. As a result, it is very important to recognize the scale of the image to be analyzed.
Image Tone or Color: all objects reflect or emit specific signatures of electromagnetic radiation. In most cases, related types of objects emit or reflect similar wavelengths of radiation. Also, the types of recording device and recording media produce images that are reflective of their sensitivity to particular range of radiation. As a result, the interpreter must be aware of how the object being viewed will appear on the image examined. For example, on color infrared images vegetation has a color that ranges from pink to red rather than the usual tones of green.
Pattern: many objects arrange themselves in typical patterns. This is especially true of human-made phenomena. For example, orchards have a systematic arrangement imposed by a farmer, while natural vegetation usually has a random or chaotic pattern (Figure 2e-10).
Figure 2e-10: Black and white aerial photograph of natural coniferous vegetation (left) and adjacent apple orchards (center and right).

Shadow: shadows can sometimes be used to get a different view of an object. For example, an overhead photograph of a towering smokestack or a radio transmission tower normally presents an identification problem. This difficulty can be over come by photographing these objects at Sun angles that cast shadows. These shadows then display the shape of the object on the ground. Shadows can also be a problem to interpreters because they often conceal things found on the Earth's surface.
Texture: imaged objects display some degree of coarseness or smoothness. This characteristic can sometimes be useful in object interpretation. For example, we would normally expect to see textural differences when comparing an area of grass with a field corn. Texture, just like object size, is directly related to the scale of the image.

(f). Introduction to Geographic Information Systems



Introduction and Brief History
The advent of cheap and powerful computers over the last few decades has allowed for the development of innovative software applications for the storage, analysis, and display of geographic data. Many of these applications belong to a group of software known as Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Many definitions have been proposed for what constitutes a GIS. Each of these definitions conforms to the particular task that is being performed. Instead of repeating each of these definitions, I would like to broadly define GIS according to what it does. Thus, the activities normally carried out on a GIS include:
  • The measurement of natural and human made phenomena and processes from a spatial perspective. These measurements emphasize three types of properties commonly associated with these types of systems: elements, attributes, and relationships.
  • The storage of measurements in digital form in a computer database. These measurements are often linked to features on a digital map. The features can be of three types: points, lines, or areas (polygons).
  • The analysis of collected measurements to produce more data and to discover new relationships by numerically manipulating and modeling different pieces of data.
  • The depiction of the measured or analyzed data in some type of display - maps, graphs, lists, or summary statistics.
The first computerized GIS began its life in 1964 as a project of the Rehabilitation and Development Agency Program within the government of Canada. The Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS) was designed to analyze Canada's national land inventory data to aid in the development of land for agriculture. The CGIS project was completed in 1971 and the software is still in use today. The CGIS project also involved a number of key innovations that have found their way into the feature set of many subsequent software developments.
From the mid-1960s to 1970s, developments in GIS were mainly occurring at government agencies and at universities. In 1964, Howard Fisher established the Harvard Lab for Computer Graphics where many of the industries early leaders studied. The Harvard Lab produced a number of mainframe GIS applications including: SYMAP (Synagraphic Mapping System),CALFORM, SYMVU, GRID, POLYVRT, and ODYSSEY. ODYSSEY was first modern vector GIS and many of its features would form the basis for future commercial applications. Automatic Mapping System was developed by the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late 1960s. This project then spawned the CIA's World Data Bank, a collection of coastlines, rivers, and political boundaries, and the CAM software package that created maps at different scales from this data. This development was one of the first systematic map databases. In 1969, Jack Dangermond, who studied at the Harvard Lab for Computer Graphics, co-founded Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) with his wife Laura. ESRI would become in a few years the dominate force in the GIS marketplace and create ArcInfo and ArcView software. The first conference dealing with GIS took place in 1970 and was organized by Roger Tomlinson (key individual in the development of CGIS) and Duane Marble (professor at Northwestern University and early GIS innovator). Today, numerous conferences dealing with GIS run every year attracting thousands of attendants.
In the 1980s and 1990s, many GIS applications underwent substantial evolution in terms of features and analysis power. Many of these packages were being refined by private companies who could see the future commercial potential of this software. Some of the popular commercial applications launched during this period include: ArcInfo, ArcView, MapInfo, SPANS GIS, PAMAP GIS, INTERGRAPH, and SMALLWORLD. It was also during this period that many GIS applications moved from expensive minicomputer workstations to personal computer hardware.
 
Components of a GIS
A Geographic Information System combines computer cartography with a database management system. Figure 2f-1 describes some of the major components common to a GIS. This diagram suggests that a GIS consists of three subsystems: (1) an input system that allows for the collection of data to be used and analyzed for some purpose; (2) computer hardware and software systems that store the data, allow for data management and analysis, and can be used to display data manipulations on a computer monitor; (3) an output system that generates hard copy maps, images, and other types of output.
Figure 2f-1: Three major components of a Geographic Information System. These components consist of input, computer hardware and software, and output subsystems.

Two basic types of data are normally entered into a GIS. The first type of data consists of real world phenomena and features that have some kind of spatial dimension. Usually, these data elements are depicted mathematically in the GIS as either points, lines, or polygons that are referenced geographically (or geocoded) to some type of coordinate system. This type data is entered into the GIS by devices like scanners, digitizers, GPS, air photos, and satellite imagery. The other type of data is sometimes referred to as an attribute. Attributes are pieces of data that are connected or related to the points, lines, or polygons mapped in the GIS. This attribute data can be analyzed to determine patterns of importance. Attribute data is entered directly into a database where it is associated with element data.
The difference between element and attribute data can be illustrated in Figures 2f-2 and 2f-3. Figure 2f-2 shows the location of some of the earthquakes that have occurred in the last century. These plotted data points can be defined as elements because their main purpose is to describe the location of the earthquakes. For each of the earthquakes plotted on this map, the GIS also has data on their depth. These measurements can be defined as attribute data because they are connected to the plotted earthquake locations in Figure 2f-2. Figure 2f-3 shows the attribute earthquake depth organized into three categories: shallow; intermediate; and deep. This analysis indicates a possible relationship between earthquake depth and spatial location - deep earthquakes do not occur at the mid-oceanic ridges.
Figure 2f-2: Distribution of earthquake events that have occurred over the last century.


Figure 2f-3: Earthquake events organized according to depth (yellow (shallow) = surface to 25 kilometers below the surface, red (intermediate) = 26 to 75 kilometers below the surface, and black (deep) = 76 to 660 kilometers below the surface).

Within the GIS database a user can enter, analyze, and manipulate data that is associated with some spatial element in the real world. The cartographic software of the GIS enables one to display the geographic information at any scale or projection and as a variety of layers which can be turned on or off. Each layer would show some different aspect of a place on the Earth. These layers could show things like a road network, topography, vegetation cover, streams and water bodies, or the distribution of annual precipitation received. The output illustrated in Figure 2f-4 merges data layers for vegetation community type, glaciers and ice fields, and water bodies (streams, lakes, and ocean).
Figure 2f-4: Graphic output from a GIS. This GIS contains information about the major plant communities, lakes and streams, and glaciers and ice fields found occupying the province of British Columbia, Canada. The output shows Vancouver Island and part of the British Columbia mainland.

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